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                Translation ways

                漢英句子翻譯技巧匯總講解

                Title: 漢英翻㊣ 譯技巧:合並(Combination)


                Category: 本科三年級以上
                Key words: combination, simple sentence, compound sentence, C-E translation
                Abstract: It discusses the technique of combination of simple and compound
                sentences.
                Compiler: 丁樹德等

                C-E
                (A) in terms of simple sentences
                 

                (1) 天氣寒冷,河水都結冰№了。It was so cold that the river froze. (丁樹德,"英漢漢英翻譯教學綜合指導",大〓學出版社,1996)
                 

                (2) 理論必須密切聯系實際,這是我們應當牢記的一條原則。That theory must go hand in hand with practice is a principle we should always keep in mind. (丁樹德,"英漢漢英翻譯教學綜合指導",大學∩出版社,1996)
                 

                (3) 他ξ在戰鬥中表現突出,受到連長的表揚。He was commended by the company commander for his distinguished performance in the battle. (丁樹德,"英漢漢英翻譯教學綜合指導",大學劍也發生了變異出版社,1996)
                 

                (4) 年滿十八歲的公民,都有選舉權和被選舉權。All citizens who have reached the age of eighteen have the right to vote and to stand for election. (丁樹德,"英漢漢英翻譯教學綜合指導",大學出版社,1996)
                 

                (5) 當時,友誼商店只對外賓開放☉,不對中賓開放。At the time the friendship store was exclusively open to foreign visitors.(王大偉,"現代漢英翻譯∴技巧",世界圖書出版公司,1999) (本科四年級Ψ以上)
                 

                (B) in terms of compound sentences
                 

                (6) 她對自己所取得的成就充滿了自豪,這也不是沒有道理的。She is justifiably proud of her achievements. ("現★代漢英翻譯技巧" 王大偉 世界圖書出版公司 1999)
                 

                (7) 這家小工廠經過技術改造,發展很快,使人感到驚訝不已。This small factory underwent a technological renovation, thus developing with surprising speed. (王大偉,"現代漢英翻譯技巧",世界圖書出版公司,1999) (本科四年級以ζ上)
                 

                (8) 只要看一眼這≡封信,你就會明白你上當了。A glance at this letter will convince you that you have been taken in. (朱巧蓮,"漢譯英「之合譯法","上海科技▓翻譯",2001, No. 1)
                 

                (9) 看門人驚呆劍無生狂吼一聲了,喘著粗氣,搖搖晃晃地走△下樓梯。The janitor staggered down the stairway, stunned and gasping. (朱巧蓮,"漢譯英之合譯法","上海科技←翻譯",2001, No. 1)
                 

                (10) 還是熱,心裏可鎮定多了。涼風,即使是莫非一點點▆,給了人們許多希望。(老舍"駱駝祥子")It was still hot but everyone felt much better, for the breeze, though slight, brought them hope.(馮慶華編著,"英漢互●譯實用翻譯教程",上海外語教育出版社,2000) (本科四年級以上)
                 

                 

                 

                 

                Title: 漢英翻譯技巧:補償(Compensation)
                Category: 本科三年級以上
                Key words: compensation, culture, context, background information, C-E translation
                Abstract: It discusses the technique of compensation from the perspectives of culture,
                context and background information.
                Compiler: 《新時代』漢英大詞典》等
                 

                C-E.
                1. 九州 Jiuzhou -- a poetic name for China
                -北京外國語大學英語系《漢英詞典》組編,《漢英詞典》,外☆語教學與研究出版社。

                2. 八股文 Eighth-part essay prescribed for the imperial civil service examinations-- known for its rigidity of form and poverty of ideas
                -吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時代漢英ω 大詞典》,商務︾印書館①。

                3. 狗咬呂洞賓,不識好人心 Like the dog that bit Lu Tungpin--you bite the hand that feeds you.
                -吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時代漢英◥大詞典》,商務印哼書館。

                4. 貓哭老鼠--假慈悲 The cat weeping over the dead mouse--shed crocodile tears.
                -吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時》代漢英大詞典》,商務印書館。

                5. 蘇軾: Su Shi (formerly translated as Su Shih, 1037-1101),alias Su Dongpo, writer and calligrapher of the Song Dynasty.
                -吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時代漢英大詞典》,商務印書館。

                6. 秀才 Xiucai, one who passed the imperial examination at the county level in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
                -吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時代漢英大詞典》,商務印書館。

                7. 牛郎織女 the Cowherd and the Girl Weaver-two figures in ancient Chinese fairy tale (Later it also refers to husband and wife who live far apart.)
                -吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時代漢英大詞典》,商務印書館。

                8. 藍田人 Lantian Man, ape-man of about 600,000 years ago whose fossil remains were found in Lantian, Shanxi Province in 1964
                -吳景榮,程鎮球主編,《新時代漢英大詞典》,商務印書館。

                9. 開綠燈 turn on the green light (provide conveniences for certain affairs, so that they could proceed smoothly)
                -張震久,袁憲軍編,《漢英中國專有名稱★和術語簡明詞典》,北京大學出版社。

                10. 梅雨季節 plum rain season (about 1-month rainy season usu. beginning in early summer when plum fruit becomes ripe in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River) or moldy season, a rainy season when everything goes moldy easily in the said area. (陳剛)

                 

                 

                Title: 漢英翻譯技巧:分譯(division)
                Category: 本科三年級以上
                Key words: division, sentence, C-E translation
                Abstract: It discusses the technique of division from the perspective of various kinds of
                sentences.
                 


                C-E.
                (1) 不久,她提著籃子回來了。Very soon she came back, holding a basket in her hand. (劉慎軍、李洪民、楊斌、劉寶編著,"按實◣例學英語翻譯",北京工業大學出版看著那十級仙帝低聲喝道社, 2001)
                 

                (2) 他拉過一把椅△子放在客人背後。He drew up a chair and placed it behind the visitor. (劉慎軍、李洪民、楊斌、劉寶編著,"按實▃例學英語翻譯",北京工業大學出版社, 2001)
                 

                (3) 周萍一個人從飯廳走上來,望望花園,冷清清的,沒有一人。Zhou Ping appears from the dining room. He is alone. He peers out at the garden. It is silent and deserted.(宋天錫、袁江、袁冬娥編著,李鵬飛審校,"翻譯新概念英漢互譯實用教程",國際工業←出版社)
                 

                (4) 他哼著曲子從山上走下來。 He walked down the hill, singing softly to himself.(劉慎軍、李洪民、楊斌、劉寶編著,"按實例學英語翻?quot;,北京工業大學出版社, 2001)
                 

                (5) 人民的覺悟是不容易的,要去【掉人民頭腦中的錯誤思想,需要我們做很多切切實實的工作。The political awakening of the people is not easy. It requires much earnest effort on our part to rid their minds of wrong ideas. ("英漢翻●譯手冊")
                 

                (6) 我們的目的一定要達到,我們的目的一定能夠達到。Our goal must be attained. Our goal will be attained.(單其昌著,楊憲益校,"漢英翻譯技巧",外語教學與研究出版社,1999)
                 

                (7) 我們↓的革命已經獲得全世界廣大人民的同情和歡呼,我們的朋友遍於全世界。Our revolution has won the sympathy and acclaim of the people of all countries. We have friends all over the world. (單其昌著,楊憲益校,"漢英翻譯技巧",外語教學與研究出版社,1999)
                 

                (8) 我們恢復和采取這些貿易√方式的原因很簡單:我們出口商品就是為了我們國外客戶消費方面的需要。The reason why we have restored and adopted these trade practices is very simple. Our export commodities are for the use and consumption of our foreign customers. (單其昌著,楊憲益校,"漢英翻譯技巧",外語教學與研究出版社,1999)
                 

                (9) 這次大會充分發揚了民主,大家心情舒暢,生動活潑;真正開成了一個團結的大會,勝利的大會。The conference has given full expression to democracy; the atmosphere has been lively and the delegates have enjoyed ease of mind. Ours has indeed been a congress of unity, a congress of victory.(鐘述孔著 《英漢翻譯手冊》 商務印書館 1980)
                 

                (10) 這些國家的共產黨和進步黨派,正促使它們的政府和我們做生意,以致建立外交關系,這是善意的,這就是援助。 The Communist Parties and progressive groups in these countries are urging their governments to established trade and even diplomatic relations with us. This is goodwill, this is help.(鐘述孔著 《英漢翻譯手冊》 商務印書館 1980)

                 

                 

                Title: 漢英翻譯技巧:形合 (Hypotaxis)
                Category: 本科三年級以上
                Key words: hypotaxis, sentence structure, syntactic, C-E translation
                Abstract: It discusses the technique of hypotaxis from the perspective of syntactic subordination or
                sentence structure.
                Compiler: 楊莉藜、馮誌傑等
                 

                C-E
                1. 讓壁立的巖石,靜靜流著的小河,風過處便竊竊私語的樹林,都作為自己的親密鄰居。
                All the company she had were the steep cliffs, the gently flowing stream, and the trees that whispered in the wind. (楊莉藜<英漢〗互譯教程】>河南大學出版社)
                 

                2. 漢朝人在宮殿和墓前的石室裏,多喜歡繪畫或雕刻古來的帝王、孔子的弟子、列士、列女、孝子之類◎的圖。
                People of the Han Dynasty liked to have paintings or caved relief of rulers of old, disciples of Confucius, eminent scholars and ladies and filial sons in the palaces or the stone chambers before their tombs. (楊莉藜<英漢互譯快離開這教程>河南大學出版社)
                 

                3. 不必說碧綠的菜畦,光滑的石井欄,高大的皂莢樹,紫紅的桑椹……
                I need not speak of the green vegetable plots, the slippery stone coping round the well, the tall honey locust tree, or the purple mulberries. (楊莉藜<英漢互譯教程>河南大學出版社)
                 

                4. 盡著他的腿的力量走了一天,問了一天,沒有消息。
                As long as his legs would move he walked on, asking, but by the end of the day he still had no news. (楊莉藜<英漢互譯教程>河南大學出版社)
                 

                5. 七股大水,從水々庫的橋孔躍出,仿佛七幅閃光黃錦,直鋪下去,碰著嶙峋的亂石,激起一片雪白水珠,脫線一般,撒在洄漩的水面。
                Seven torrents were rushing through the archways of the bridge like seven glittering rolls of cloth of gold cascading on to the jagged rocks below and scattering snow-white bubbles like a string of broken beads on the swirling water. (<中國現代◤散文卷>外語教學與研究出版社,中國文學出版社)
                 

                6. 月光如流水一般,靜靜地瀉在這一片葉子和花上。薄薄的青霧浮起在荷塘裏,葉子和花仿佛在牛乳中洗過一樣;又像籠著輕紗的夢
                Moonlight cascaded like water over the locus leaves and flowers, and a light blue mist floating up from the pool made them seem washed in milk or caught in a gauzy dream. 。(<中國現代散文卷>外語教學與研究出版社,中國文學出版社)
                 

                7. 另一方面,必須用上述材料進行廣泛宣傳,使人們認識到,自然保護區是保護自然及文化遺產的基本〇單位,它們是在人類進步裏程中長期鬥爭中形成的,對經濟建設有著重要的作用。
                On the other hand, it is necessary to carry on the extensive publicity, enabling the public to know that the protected areas are the basic unit of the management of the natural and cultural heritages which are formed in the struggle process against the nature by human beings and will play an important role in the economic construction. (馮誌傑<漢英科技翻譯指要>中國對外翻譯出版公司)
                 

                8. 為保護海洋環境,促進海洋經濟發展,必須提高對海洋▂環境監測的認識,增加投入,加強"熱點"海域的監測,減少海洋的損失,加強海洋生物監測,避免潛伏的海洋災害發生。
                In order to promote the development of sustainable marine economy and conserve marine environment, we should pay great attention to reinforcing awareness of marine environmental monitoring, increasing investment and strengthening the monitoring in "hot spots" as well as biological monitoring to avoid marine calamity. (馮誌傑<漢英科技翻譯指要>中國對外翻譯出版公司)
                 

                9. 飯菜雖然簡單,但別有一番風味,屋外一團漆黑,穿過松林的風發出如火車的♀轟鳴聲,我們在搖曳不定的煤油燈下豪情與老人幹杯。
                When we enjoyed the simple but tasty food and drank cheerful toasts with the old man under the flickering oil-lamp, darkness reigned the outside world where the wind was thundering through the pinewood like a train. (<中國現代散文卷>外語教學與研究出版社,中國文學出版社)
                 

                10. 仍像往常一樣,把晴美數量肯定也不少的陽光抹上滿峽的樹林,叫帶露的樹葉都亮得耀人的眼睛。
                Just as on any other day, the morning sun spread its fine light over the wooded valley, till the dewy leaves and grass glistened with a dazzling brightness. (<中國現代散文卷>外語教學與研究出版社,中國文學出版社)

                 

                Title: 漢英翻譯技巧:音譯(transliteration)
                Category: 本科三年級以上
                Key words: transliteration, proper name, special noun, C-E translation
                Abstract: It discusses the technique of transliteration in translating proper names and some
                other special nouns.
                Compiler:《中國翻譯》等
                 


                CE (註:這部分中,完全按照漢語拼音音譯的詞即為"標準漢音",而按廣東話音譯的詞也可作為回譯◥中EC部分的例子)
                1. 胡同:hutong (" Beijing Weekend ", No.520)
                 

                2. 餃子:jiaozi (《音義兼譯--外來語中譯之黑白雙羚首選》,《中國翻譯》,2001/6)
                 

                3. 武術:wushu (同上)
                 

                4. 普通話:putonghua (同上)
                 

                5. 旗袍:qipao (同上)
                 

                6. 上海: Shanghai
                (以上6例皆可作〗為"標準漢音"的例子。)
                 

                7. 豆腐:tofu (《音義兼譯--外來語中譯之首選》,《中國翻譯》,2001/6 或p.25,《詞語翻譯叢談》,中國對外翻譯出版公司)/dou-fu (p.25,《詞語翻譯叢談》,中國對外翻譯出版公司)
                 

                8. 功夫: gongfu (《音義兼譯--外來語中譯之首選》,《中國翻譯》,2001/6)
                 

                9. 乒乓:ping-pong (同上)
                 

                10.炒面:chow mien (同上)
                (以上例8-10也可作為回譯EC部分的例子)


                 

                Title: 漢英翻譯技巧:習語(Translation of Idioms)
                Category: 本科三、四年級
                Key words: idiom, cases, C-E translation
                Abstract: It discusses the technique of translating idioms in various cases.
                Compiler: 張培基、呂瑞昌、郭著章等
                 

                C-E

                直譯
                (1) 男男女女都七嘴八舌地說出他們的惦記和盼念。 With seven mouths and eight tongues, all were talking together. They tried to tell how they had missed him. (張培基 習語漢譯英研究)

                (2) 亡羊補牢 to mend the fold after a sheep is lost (同上)

                直譯加註
                司馬昭之心,已是路人皆知╱。 This Sima Zhao trick is obvious to every man in the street.
                (3) (Sima zhao was a prime minister of Wei(220-265)who nursed a secret ambition to usurp the throne. The emperor once remarked: "Sima Zhao's intention is obvious to every man in the street." (呂瑞昌等 漢英翻譯教程)

                (4) 你說這話,意思是要領導上三請諸葛?
                What you say implies that the leadership should ask you three times, like Zhuge Liang, doesn't it?
                (Zhuge Liang, a statesman and strategist in the State of Shu during the period of wisdom and resourcefulness in Chinese folklore. )
                (張培基 習語漢譯英研究)
                同義習語套用
                 

                (5) 晴天霹靂   a bolt from the blue (同上)
                 

                (6) 只有破釜沈舟地跟他們拼,還不必許有翻身的一天。
                All you can do is to burn your boats and fight them in the hope that one day you'll come out on top.  (同上)

                意譯
                (7) 我要有個三長兩短,你給玉山捎個話!
                If anything should happen to me , let Yushan know! (呂瑞昌等 漢英翻譯教程)
                 

                (8) 大智若愚 A truly wise person does not show off his (her) ability. ( 張培基 習語漢譯英研究)


                直譯加意一切譯
                (9) 瞎子點燈白費蠟 as useless as a blind man lighting a candle (張培基 習語漢譯英研究)

                (10) 梅她一個單身人,無親無故。
                Mei was all by herself and far from home, without a single relative or friend to help her.
                (呂瑞昌等 漢英翻譯教程)
                臨時變體
                 

                (11) 換湯不換藥 (張培基 習語漢譯英研究)
                old wine in new bottles ( 原〓有習語為 new wine in old bottles)
                 

                (12) 守株待兔 (同上)
                to wait for gains without pains ( 原有□習語為 No pains, no gains )

                省略
                (13) 這女子真有沈魚落雁之容,閉月羞花〖之貌。 (張培基 習語漢譯英研究)
                The girl's beauty would put the flowers to shame.
                 

                (14) 冷淡的陽關照噗著他們的愁眉苦臉和長發白眼。 (呂瑞昌等 漢譯英教程)
                The cold, pale sunlight fell on their gloomy faces, long hair and lusterless eyes.

                增添
                (15) 螳螂捕蟬,黃雀在後 (張培基 習語漢譯英研究)
                The mantis stalks the cicada, unaware of the oriole lurking behind itself.
                 

                (16) 樹倒猢猻散 (同上)
                Once the tree falls, the monkeys on it will flee helter-skelter.

                混喻的回避
                (17) 讓我們乘風破浪,奮勇前進。 (同上)
                Let us march forward valiantly, braving all difficulties and hardships!
                (如果直譯成Let us march forward valiantly, braving winds and waves 之類的句子,其中就出現了march和 waves 的混喻問題。解決的辦法是1,"乘風破浪"和"奮勇前進"在意義上本是相互重復,加以"乘風破浪"這個習語由於使用過多實際上以神不存在什麽形象性,英譯時可略成Let us march forward valiantly! 2, 意譯法處理習語"乘風破浪",成Let us march forward valiantly, braving all difficulties and hardships!)

                粗俗語的回避
                借用同々義習語或意譯等方法回避。
                (18) 她不滿意人家說她是三槍打不出一個悶屁的落後的人。(同上)
                It annoyed her that people should say that she was backward and that no amount of coaxing would open her mouth to speak.
                相對應的英語粗俗∞語來代替原文中的漢語粗俗語。
                 

                (19) 混蛋!再打一個電話♀去!叫他馬上來見我!(同上)
                "You blasted idiots! Go and ring him up again and tell him to come round at once!"

                   

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